Indo-European languages.

I am analysing common paterns in word formation in all Indo-European languages. If you speak a language that is part of the Indo-European family (any of the branches of this family, i.d. Albanian, Anatolian, (extinct), Armenian, Balto-Slavic (Baltic and Slavic), Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic (Greek), Indo-Iranian (Iranian and Indo-Aryan), Italic (includes Romance), Messapic (extinct), Thracian (extinct), Tocharian (extinct)), could you please, provide the equivalent to the following words?:








Light (noun)





If you do, please, let me know the language and branch of the language (for example "Vater, German, Germanic; Pater, Latin, Italic). If the language uses a written form other than Latin characters, please, provide a transcription of it in Latin characters. Thanks a lot for your help.

May 18, 2014 5:58 AM
Comments · 17

Hey Mario,

here's a your list, translated in Dutch.

Dutch is a Germanic language, spoken in the Netherlands :)


Father = Vader (vadər)

Mother = Moeder (mʊdər)

Son = Zoon (zɔn)

Daughter = Dochter (dɒɣtər)

Brother = Broer (brʊr)

Sister = Zus (zʌs)

Light (noun) = Licht (lɪɣt)

Darkness = Duisternis (dœʏ̯stərnɪs)

Heat = Hitte (hɪtə)

Coldness = Kou (kaʊ̯)


The phonetic transcriptions are behind the translations.

May 18, 2014

Hindi  (Indo-Aryan):


Father       Pita (पिता)

Mother       Mata (माता)

Son           Putr (पुत्र)

Daughter    Putri (पुत्री)

Brother       Bhai (भाई)

Sister         Behen (बेहन)

Light           Prakash (प्रकाश)

Darkness     Andhkar (अंधकार)


Heat            Garmi (गर्मी)

Coldness      Sheet/Sheetal (शीत/शीतल)


May 21, 2014

Here is the list in Bashkir:

Father - атай

mother - әсәй, инәй

Son - ул

daughter - ҡыҙ

Brother - ағай (older brother); эне, ҡусты (younger brother) 

sister - апай, апа (older sister); һеңле (younger sister)

Light - яҡтылыҡ

darkness - ҡараңғылыҡ

The stress of all the words is on the last syllable 


May 18, 2014

South Slavic
Eastern South Slavic


Father - Баща (Bashta)
Mother - Майка (Mayka)
Son - Син (Sin) 
Daughter - Дъщеря (Dashterya, a=/ɤ/*)
Brother - Брат (Brat)
Sister - Сестра (Sestra)
Light (noun) - Светлина (Svetlina)
Darkness - Тъмнина (Tamnina, a=/ɤ/*)
Heat - Топлина (Toplina)
Coldness - Студ (Stud)


I underlined the stressed vowels.

<em>* The Cyrillic letter "ъ" has a lot of ways to be transliterated (a, u, y).</em>

May 18, 2014

(e' means stressed vowel)

(t' means soft consonant like ñ in Spanish , but for other consonants , too)

(read trancsription with Latin pronunciation , not English)


Balto-Slavic , Slavic (East-Slavic) , Cyrillic-Slavic , Russian


Father - Отец (Otets) , read as "Ate'ts"

Mother - Мать (Mat')

Son - Сын (Syn)

Daughter - Дочь (Doch')

Brather - Брат (Brat)

Sister - Сестра (Sestra'), read as " Sistra' "

Light - Свет (Svet)

Darkness - Темнота (Temnota') , read as - " Timnata' "

Heat - Жара (Zhara')

Coldness - холод (kho'lod) , read as - "kho'lat" 


May 18, 2014
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