My student gave me some questions below. To share the benefit with you, I would love to paste here =)
1. The 「て」-forms of「有る」and 「会う」are both pronounced the same way 「あって」。So, when speaking, how can you tell which verb is being used? (Is it just obvious from context?) - Yes.
2. How can I say the following (specifically, how can I conjugate verbs in these tenses?):
“I don’t know what I’ll be doing then, but if I’m free, I will come.”
- 「そのとき なにを しているか わからないけど、 もし時間があるなら（もし フリーなら-direct translation-）いくよ（くるよ-direct translation-）」However, tense in English and in Japanese are different. The tense in English has three parts with past, present, and future from the speaker's viewpoint. But Japanese language rather has the aspect than tense, which means when talking something, you are to talk based on the time that the something happens.
ex) I thogut he was happy.
- The time he felt happiness is handled as past thing, but in Japanese, this sentence becomes like this. 「かれは しあわせだと わたしは おもった」. 'だ' is corresponding to 'was' of 'he was happy. But Japanese language considers this based on the time this affair happened. The time what he thinks was the past, so おもう becomes おもった, but the time 'being happy' is present when he thought in that way. Therefore, not だった but だ. If he was happy even when he was talking about this, the sentence becomes that かれは しあわせだった と おもった. Distinguishing the tense in English and the aspect in Japanese is sooooo difficult part, no.... the most difficut part in learning it, I believe so. Therefore, it might be better for you to purchase a well-spoken book about this.
3. I saw the phrase 「しないで下さい」recently, and just wanted to ask what the 「で」after 「しない」meant (Is it a negative 「て」-form?).
- Yeah, SURU in te-form is SHITE and SHINAI in te-form is SHINAIDE =)
4. How are 「危険（な）」and 「危ない」different (and when do I use one instead of the other?)?
- The usage is almost same but if I have to pick up the example....
is strange usually. Becuase when saying 'watch out!', you are seeing the dangerous situation in someone, aren't you? In other words, your emotion are shaken on seeing that, and い-adjective are usually used when touching Japanese emotion or feeling. And あぶない is いadjective but 危険 is not, that's why using 危険 is strange for native Japanese speaker, 危ない is otherwise.
5. These two sentences: “I win nearly every day.”; “I nearly win every day.”are clearly different in English because of the word of order, but I can’t seem how to make the same distinction in Japanese. How would you say these two sentences?
- You have to conjugate the verb of 勝つ（かつ）-win- to distinguish.
I win nearly every day. わたしは ほぼ まいにち かちます。
I nearly win every day. This means that he ALMOST win but never, doesn't it? If so, the sentence in Japanese becomes.... わたしは まいにち かちかけています。
Sorry I have to correct the sentence below.
If he was happy even when he was talking about this, the sentence becomes that かれは しあわせだった と おもった.
If he WAS happy when he faced with this situation, the sentence becomes that かれは しあわせだった と おもった.