Normally if you are talking about a single thing and want to ephasize on it, you would put 'the' before them. like...'the man is mad', 'i like the table', 'the weather is good' etc. but u should not put more 2 'the' in a single sentence.
I found a good and in-depth explanation here: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/540/01/
(I know it's boring)...
Personally, not everyone who speaks fluent English knows about the grammar rules. Most of us have learned through watching movies, reading novels and by speaking (practising) with others for a long period of time.
It would be difficult to explain, best is to just imitate other English speakers. I believe, thats how most of us common people learn any language.