dear all, i'm just starting to learn Arabic.
could someone please help me how to spell the word "anti"?
actually it's just the first little thing on top of alif I don't know.. how is it called?
Anti is written أَنتِ
the thing on top is called a hamza هَمزَة
It sounds like a glottal stop
See for example the alef in these words (without a hamza):
نَار read: naar, meaning fire
بَاب read: baab, meaning door
and these 2 words where alef has a hamza
أَسَد read: Asad, meaning lion
فَأَر read: fa-ar, meaning mouse
Hamza can also be on top of waaw or yaa
بِئر read: be-ar meaning a well
وَائِل read: waa-el
مُؤمِن read: mo-amen
Check this link for the reading of all these words:
There is hamzah between alif and fatha,in the Arabic alphabet. However, alif was used to express both a glottal stop and a long vowel /aː/. To indicate that a glottal stop, and not a mere vowel, was intended, hamza was added diacritically to alif. In modern orthography, under certain circumstances, hamza may also appear on the line, as if it were a full letter, independent of an alif.
The little character on top of alif is called hamza ( ء ) and looks a bit like a mirror image of the number 2. When you see a word like "you" ( أنت ) you are not really pronouncing the alif but, rather, the hamza. The alif (the straight vertical line character) acts as a "chair" or a "seat" for the hamza to "sit on", as Arabic does not allow it to be free-standing at the beginning of a word. You will also find it, for example, in the middle of a word, like the word for a question ( سؤال ). The hamza here means that there is a glottal stop (think of a short break) in the middle of the word so that it's almost like pronouncing two words, but with a slight pause. Without this pause then, in English, it would sound something like "suearl": think of the girl's name Sue, followed by the letters "arl" pronounced immediately after, so that its spoken as one word. But the hamza forces a very short break, so that it's more like sue-arl. You can compare this to the way some English speakers pronounce the word "bottle" as "bot-ul" or even "bo-ul". Hope this helps!
ya their is 3 different sound for alef using fatha "َ " , kasra "ِ "and dama "ُ ". we use fatha on the "alef" for saing "anti" أَنتِ .
anti = ضد