So I've come across multiple times that there seems to be more than one way/kind of "~ing" in MSA [modern standard arabic] as compared to English where there is only 1 "~ing" it just varies due to context.
الدراسة vs دارِس.
أنا دارس أللغة العربية
ألدراسة أللغة العربية صعبة
As far as I know both of these have the feeling of "studying" but they cannot be used in the same way. Could anyone break it down for a cool kid?
Well, i'll try to simplify it as much as i can :) Gerund is used in EN to reflect different types of speech. It can represnt a verb in present tenst as in "I'm studying Arabic", or the infinitive as in "He called me while i was studying". In Arabic, these types of speeches are prsented in different ways:
- For Present tense, you can add these letters أ, ن, ي and ت at the beginning of the past verb. Thus, ذاكر (Studied) will be أذاكر (I'm studying), نذاكر (We study), يذاكر (He is studying) or تذاكر (She's studying).
- Infintive in Arabic is presented as a derivative of verb, but in different forms. As in:
يلعب - لعب (Play - playing)
يذاكر - مذاكرة (Study - studying)
يطعم - إطعام (Feed - feeding).
- For the example you've provided, دارس means "one who studies" not "studting", so it's not a gerund form. Also, infinitive الدراسة should not be combined with difinite article أل.
Groovy! Thanks for all of your help,
I copied the example with out actually paying much attention to them @_@.
So I understand: أدرس اللعة العربية
and I get : دراسة اللغة العربية صعبة
What I'm unsure about is how to make the infinitive version into a noun.
[play = playing / laugh = laughing etc]
Is it as simple as it is in english by adding a suffix/prefix, or does it change from verb to verb?
EX: درس = to study
would play be
لعب = to play
لعابة = playing?
أنا دارس للغة العربية
دراسة اللغة العربية صعبة
In English, "~ing" can be a noun or a verb. For example:
I'm studying Arabic (verb)
Studying Arabic is difficult (noun. Am I correct?)
In Arabic, it's not the same. Noun is different from the verb.
Now back to your examples which I corrected above. The first sentence means "I'm a student of Arabic language". So, the word دارس means "student", not "studying".
The second sentence means "Studying Arabic is difficult". The word دراسة/الدراسة is the noun from the verb يدرس. It's translated as "studying", but if you want to say "I'm studying Arabic" you can't say:
أنا دراسة اللغة العربية
Because "studying" here is a noun, not a verb.
The correct one is:
أنا أدرس اللغة العربية.
=I'm studying Arabic.
Hope my explanation isn't confusing. (and sorry if I made mistakes in English!)
فعل سداسى like استخدم ( esta5dama) its scale is ( استفعل) (estaf3ala) so the noun is ( استخدام) and its scale is ( استفعال ) (estef3al)
also استفهم (estafhama) (its scale is also (استفعل ) (estaf3ala) so its like the previous example (استفهام ( the scale is also ( استفعال ) (estef3al)
another example: استخرج (esta5raga) so the noun is ( استخراج) ( este5rag)
استعلم (esta3lama the noun is استعلام ( este3lam)
so all the previous examples for الفعل السداسى was starting with ( حروف الزيادة ا س ت) (the added letters) to make the verb six letters and its scale is ( استفعل) (estaf3ala) and being added to the origin verb which is ofcourse ثلاثى from 3 letters which is scale is (فعل ) (fa3ala)
so استخدم ( its scale is استفعل ) the origin verb from it when we delate the added letters ( which are ا س ت ) is ( خدم)
i know thats a very advanced stage of learning Arabic and even some Arabs Make some mistake with it in (Fusha) its advanced stage from grammer
so if you could get it it wil be great and it will make it easy for you to find any noun to any verb because once you know the origin of the verb and the added letters and its scale you can measure all the similar verbs in scale and turn it into nouns in the same way
wish you all the best in Arabic
another example (ساعد) (sa3ada) the noun is مساعدة (mosa3adah) so you will find it the same in their scales once you know how to get the noun from one verb and you know its scale you can get the noun of the verbs that belongs to the same category and sure the same scale
فعل خماسى such as تدارس (tadarasa) its noun is تدارس and you pronounce it like تفاعل ) tafa3ala) and the noun is (تدارس) tadaros تفاعل (tafa3ol)
and also (تقاتل) (takatala) and its scale is (تفاعل) its noun is تقاتل (tafa3ol)