English names are usually simple, with a first middle and last name (and sometimes a suffix like jr. sr. or III, IV, etc. if a son was given the same name as his father. Jr. is for the younger, sr. is for the older, while roman numerals like III and IV denote how many times the name has been carried over).
The first name is usually any name chosen for you.
The middle name is not used often and may be optional. I had a Taiwanese friend born in America who's middle name was simply 'C'. Everyone I've known has had a middle name of some kind. It is also somewhat common for a middle name be named after another person like the mother's best friend or a president.
The last name is the 'family name'. It usually is the father's last name that is carried down, though sometimes it may be the mother's. This is much more common in cases of divorce or if the mother raised the child alone.