My dearest, in Brazil we also use the term for when you wake up in a bad mood: "I woke up with the left foot."
As has been said here, in English says TO GET OUT OF BED ON THE WRONG SIDE.
In the expression literally "out of bed the wrong side" - the "wrong" side of the bed is the left side.
This metaphor is used to refer to someone who is in a bad mood for no reason obvious from the moment you get up, and for whom everything goes wrong during the day.
An old superstition explains the metaphor. It is said that bad luck out of bed on the left, or touch the ground first with the left foot, because the left side, associated with the West and the sunset, symbolizing death.