Hm... good question. I don't know the rule, to be honest I don't even know if there is a rule, but I'll try to explain it the way I feel is correct.
In Dal's dictionary it says "свой" is a possessive pronoun used instead of "мой", "твой", "его", "наш" etc.
What you need to know about the word "свой" is that literally it means "my own/your own/his own etc. as opposed to the word "чужой" (which means "someone else's). That is why "свой" is often used for emphasis. In your sentence "У него есть свой дом" you literally mean "He has his own house" (i.e. he is not living in someone else's house, he has his own one). If someone was teaching you how to say your name, you could respond with "Эй, я знаю свое (собственное) имя" which means "Hey, I know my own name" (emphasis again).
"Свой" is often used instead of "мой", "твой", "его", "наш" etc. I don't know when you use which, but "свой" is more frequent. My personal guess is that "мой", "твой", "его", "наш" etc. are used when attributing the subject, and "свой" usually attributes the object (or modifiers). For example, we say "Моя мама - учительница"/"My mom is a teacher", but "Я люблю свою маму"/"I love my mom". "Я люблю мою маму" is also possible, but it sounds childish (a child could say that, they actually do quite often). It is also correct to say "Он живет со своими родителями" ("He lives with his parents").
I hope this helps.