1. No. They are adjectives and can express actions or states, just like the corresponding verb.
2. No. Same as above.
1 and 2. However, I think I understand what you are trying to ask here, although you have put the question poorly.
A declining nation = The nation is declining (active voice)
A stolen car = The car has been stolen (passive voice)
Maybe this is what you are after.
There's a woman reading a book = There's a woman that is reading a book.
The car stolen last nigh = The car that was stolen last night
They function like relative clauses, only the "that is/was" has been omitted.