Two- Present and Past Tense.
If you consider aspect, you get perfect (have written, has ignored, had seen), progressive (is growing, was thinking) and perfect progressive (have been talking, had been waiting).
Add modals in, you get verb phrases like 'will go' and 'shall go', which is what people refer to as the 'simple future tense'. Notice that you combine a modal verb (will) with a main verb in its present tense (go) to mark future time in a verb phrase. There is no such thing as a 'future tense' in English.
Then, there is also voice- active and passive. For passive, you get verb phrases like 'are delighted', 'was given' etc.
You can combine voice and aspect together and get phrases like 'has been jailed', 'had been jailed', 'is being jailed', 'was being jailed'
If you combine modals with aspect, you get verb phrases like 'may have come', 'will be coming' and if you combine modals with passive voice, you get a phrase like 'would be thrown'.