Present Perfect Simple.
I/you/we/they have worked
He/she/it has worked
Have I/you/we/they worked?
Has he/she/it worked?
I/you/we/they have not worked
He/she/it has not worked.
1) when we are talking about recent results of past actions.
Ex. It has shaken up company structures just as much as external markets, says Vanessa Houlder.
2) announcing news. (The use of the Pr.P. focuses on the current relevance)
Ex. Our fax number has changed.
We've just lowered our prices!
3) with time adverbs. (we use the Pr.P.Simple to say how long a situation that began in the past has lasted up to the moment of speaking).
Ex. He's been vice-president for 10 years.
She's always been a creative person.
4) talking about life experiences
Ex. He's done many jobs in his time. He's sold encyclopedias, he's been a journalist, he's worked in a shoe factory and now he's a trade unionist.
5) with expressions referring to "time up now"
Ex. Have you ever visited Beijing? (ever = at any previous time up to now)
I've never seen the Niagara Falls. (never = at no previous time up to now)
Hasn't she yet decided what to do next? (yet = until the present)
We've had a good year so far ( so far = up until now)
We've grown rapidly over the last few years ( = recent years up until now)
6) after "this is the first/second time"
Ex. This is the first time we have (ever) received a complaint.
It's only the second time we've met.
7) referring to a completed event in the future after "when", "as soon as", etc
Ex. I'll leave as soon as I've finished (or As soon as I finish...)
I'll phone you when I've received confirmation.
Present Perfect Progressive.
I/you/we/they have been working
He/she/it has been working
Have I/you/we/they been working?
Has he/she/it been working?
I/you/we/they have not been working
He/she/it has not been working.
1) when we are talking about continuous activities (when the focus is on an extended period of time. the situation or activity started in the past and has been in progress for a period until now).
Ex. Exports have been growing steadily over the past six months.
Foreign earnings have been moving ahead to record levels.
The above situations are incomplete; the present perfect Simple, on the other hand, tells us that the action has finished
I've been reading your proposal
She's been checking the calculations
(Here the focus is on the activities)
I've read your proposal.
She's checked the calculations
(Here the focus is on their completion)
2) talking about the effect of recent events
"Why are your hands so dirty?" "I've been trying to repair my car all afternoon".
3) talking about repeated actions
Have you seen my wife? (I'm looking for her)
Have you been seeing my wife? (I suspect you're both having an affair).