Hmm, let's see.
'I have had' means that you have done something in the past or you have tried something.
'I have had a concussion' means that you had a concussion in the past, but not now.
'I have had spaghetti before' means that you have tried spaghetti at least once in the past.
'I would do' means you have not tried the activity or noun, but you will try it given the chance.
'I would try spaghetti.' If you have never had spaghetti and want to try it.
'I would go horseback-riding.' You want to go horseback riding, but you cannot for some reason.
If you want to emphasize that you want to do this activity, you can say: 'I would like to...' ex. 'I would like to try spaghetti.'
However, often you will explain the reason why you have not done the activity yet to use it as an excuse not to do something.
'I would try spaghetti, but I am allergic.'
'I would go horseback riding, but it's raining.'
'I would have done' basically means the same thing as 'I would do', expect it is in the past.
'I would have tried spaghetti.' (in the past)
'I would have gone horseback riding.' (in the past)
'I would have liked to try spaghetti' (in the past)
'I would have tried spaghetti, but I am allergic.'
'I would have gone horseback riding, but it was raining.'
So in short, the main difference here is volition and the verb tense (past or present). Hope this helps!