Hugo, you are right -- there are SO many phrasal verbs! I have this same problem in learning Spanish. I like your question because it made me realize that I need to make a plan for learning them a few at a time. I keep putting it off! (That is a phrasal verbal...to put off!)
I want to reassure you, though, that even if you use the wrong phrasal verb, people will usually understand your meaning anyway! For example, if you want to say
"Let's go out! You can PUT OFF your homework until tomorrow."
but instead you say
"Let's go out! You can PUT OUT your homework until tomorrow."
The second one is wrong, but any English speaker will understand that you meant "postpone" (a synonym for "put off") and not "extinguish" (the synonym for "put out" when speaking of a candle or fire).
I hope that Spanish speakers are also understanding about the wrong use of phrasal verbs!