I am not a professional Chinese teacher, so l'd like to explain it in my own way. I hope it can help you.
In this sentence, you should not consider "住" as a verb though in some cases, we use two verbs in the same sentence.
"这桥承受得住很大的重量". the words "承受得住"here can be replaced by "承受得起" “承受的了". I think "住" in this sentence doesn't really mean anything. It's just like some kind of idiom. We use "住" to describe a level or state. "这桥承受得住很大的重量" = "This bridge can sustain a heavy weight" .
Besides, we don't use 看得住/做不住/说不住/听得住. And i'd like to give you some examples of right usage of “住”