1 情况qing2 kuang4,it mainly means “situation ,condition”, below examples are the normal usages.
我们要面对面的研究一下这种情况。We should discuss the situation face to face.
在任何情况下，我都不会同意你的意见。I won’t agree with you in any situation.
2情状qing2 zhuang4=情形qing2 xing2
We don’t use 情状 very often either, so you could use 情形 instead. The usage of 情形 is similar with 情况.
3情境qing2 jing4, the synonym of this word in Chinese is like情景qing2 jing3。Although it also means “situation”, we don’t use 情境very often. As for me, I prefer to use 情境 in some literature sentence.
Example: 在这种情境下，”同意”这个词用在这更好. This word “同意” will be better to be used in this situation.
Besides,情景,it means situation, but also contains “scene” , kind of like a picture.
4 状态zhuang4 tai4 =state, you could use状态 on your mood 情绪状态or physical state.身体状态
Example: 他处于异常焦虑的状态。He was in a state of great agitation.
5势态 shi4 tai4,（the synonym is 事态the affair situation） this word is usually used on military or political situation so maybe you could only hear this two words in some news. You could say: 势态/事态 恶化
6 局面ju2 mian4
6 局面ju2 mian4,the synonym of this word is 形势,both mean “situation ,or state”.
我们正处於一种全新的局面。We're into a whole situation.
这样的局面对我们来说是不利的。This situation is unfavorable for us.
7 气候qi4 hou4 =climate, I think this word is quite different from the above words, so it will be easier to understand how to use. Basically, it just like the meaning of “climate” ,which means that weather averaged over a long period of time.
你会很快习惯这里的气候的。You will soon get accustomed to the climate here.
北京秋天的气候变化无常。The climate of Autumn in Beijing is capricious.
In addition, we always use 情况、情形、情景、状态、气候 in our daily life, and rarely use 情境、情状、事态、势态、局面, since they will be better used in an official or specific way.
BTW, all of PIN YIN are summarized for you, I will write them down together :
情况qing2 kuang4、情形qing2 xing2、情景qing2 jing3、状态zhuang4 tai4、气候qi4 hou4、
情境qing2 jing4、情状qing2 zhuang4、事态shi4 tai4、势态shi4 tai4、局面ju2 mian4