The meaning is clear to me, and the grammar is correct except for one extra word, so I am just correcting errors in the style, assuming you are using APA sentence style title rules
1. Remove the space before the colon, add a space after the colon
2. The phrase "environmental change" does not call for the article "the"
3. Do not capitalize "in" (before Taiwan)
4. Capitalize "A" after the colon
"The temporal-spatial distribution characteristic of Neolithic sites and environmental change: A case study of Kaohsiung-Pingtung plain area in Taiwan"
Good luck with your paper! :)