It's really tough to find a corresponding phrase in Chinese that can exactly express the meaning of "take that"From what I see, "瞧啊" or "等着瞧" would be the closest one that can partly suffice the meanning; like "ha, take that Classical Chinese" would be "哈，古文，等着瞧吧" or "ha, take that you old..." would be "哈，瞧你这个老家伙……" However, attention need to be paid that "瞧啊", "等着瞧", including "看我的" and "接招吧" include somewhat contemptuous meanning, therefore you can't use them in an positive case, like someone did a good job at something.
For the record, it's just according to my knowledge, with more you learn, perhaps you will find some better phrase. By the way, you konw, the word "take" itself has a number of different meanings, each of which corresponds different translation, the context changes, the translation changes, like take the bus "乘汽车", take a shower "洗澡", take an oath "起誓", take over "接管", I can't take it anymore "我再也受不了了", take... as your wife "让..成为你的妻子", take a look at "看..." and so on; herein, my idea is, remember each different context with a corresponding translation.
Hence, when "take that" is used in a positive context, I'd rather translate it into "看..." or "快看...!" which is part of its complete meaning as well. For instance: take that! He just broke the record! “快看啊，他破纪录了！"; take that the wonderful handwritting she writes "看啊，她的字写的真好！".