I realize that this question is quite old, but I hope you'll see it anyway. Nadia has already given you a good answer, but being a Norwegian born and raised, I figured I'd answer as well. It's going to be very long, so I'll put the rest in the comments section or something:
1) Just what Nadia said.
2) What Nadia said. He represents the Labour Party, which governs in a coalition with the Centre Party (agrarian party) and Socialist Left Party. They are likely to lose power this coming September.
3) Abortion is legal for any reason until the 12th week. Exceptions are made in the following cases: Danger to the mother, a great danger of grave illness (in the child), that the pregnancy is the result of rape or incest or, lastly; if the mother is mentally challenged or has a serious mental illness. Most abortions are performed before the 12th week.
4) Drugs are illegal, just as Nadia says. Tobacco and alcohol is legal and regulated, and we (along with the Swedes and a few others) also have a thing called "snus", a kind of tobacco that is placed under the upper lip. There is a growing movement advocating legalisation of marijuana, but it's not likely to happen anytime soon.
5) Nadia is right. If you were talking about holidays, we're pretty much like other semi-Christian countries: Time off during Easter, Christmas and so on.
6) Hard to say. Magnus Carlsen, the chess world no. 1, is quite famous. So is a few of our football (soccer) players, like Ole Gunnar Solskjær. If you include those not alive anymore, I'd say that Henrik Ibsen, Edvard Grieg, Edvard Munch and Leiv Eiriksson might be well-known, although it depends on where in the world you are from.
7) The most successful is probably Rosenborg Ballklub, and they also have the highest attendance figures. Molde FK has won the league two times in a row now. Historically it could be Lyn, who have the national attendance record and were quite successful in the 60's, almost ousting Barcelona in the European Cup.