Past simple: Used when an action happened in the past and is completed.
''I went shopping yesterday''...''We found the keys in the sink''.
OR when describing a past action which occurred frequently.
''I played tennis three times a week''....''They travelled a lot when they were younger''.
Past continuous: Describes a past action which is ongoing at that moment in the past.
''She was visiting her parents''...''They were waiting ages for the train''.
Present perfect: This one causes problems. It can refer to present actions which are incomplete, or past actions which are complete. Often time adverbs/adverbial phrases are used to clarify the meaning.
Present - ''I have lived here for years''....''How long have you worked for this company?''.
Past - ''He has visited 15 countries in his life''...'''We have worked very hard today''.
Past perfect - Shows an event which was completed before another event in the past.
''It had rained heavily that day, so we stayed indoors''.
''The show had been very successful and received a commendable review in the papers''.
It is also used to form the 3rd conditional (speculating about past events)
''If only they had woken up earlier, they might have seen the aurora''.
I hope this helps. Is this test about narrative tenses? Even if it isn't, it might be worth searching for it online. These tenses are often used in narratives to varying degrees.