I am trying to think of when I would say "I feed my dog" & it is difficult. When it is difficult, I wonder whether it is what people mean.
Your dog is so thin. Do you feed it?
Yes, I feed my dog.
Yes, I give beef to my dog.
Yes, I give dog food to my dog. - not incorrect, but strange.
Yes, I feed my dog, dog-food.
But much more natural to say something like
Yes, beef. I give chopped beef to my dog.
I feed him chopped beef & uncooked bones.
I feed squirrels in the park.
Yesterday I gave peanuts to the squirrels.
Today I am giving walnuts to the squirrels.
They have a weekly menu. Today is Sunday, so today I give pinenuts to the squirrels.
I can use "give" as it refers to a pattern, "every Sunday I give pinenuts to the squirrels".