The difference is minimal (except for spelling -- Canadians tend to use UK spelling).. probably less than the regional differences within each country.
Vocabulary differences often have to do with slang, or with local culinary specialtiies or customs.
Pronunciation: The most reliable difference is that Canadians pronounce the "ou" as /ʌʊ/ instead of /aʊ/ in syllables that end in an unvoiced consonant. (This is similar to how US speakers pronounce the "long o" -- for example, Canadian "about" sounds like US "a boat."
The usual example is "out and about" pronounced /ʌʊrəndəbaʊt/
Note that even though the first t is pronounced voiced, as a very quick (Arab style) "r", it still counts as "unvoiced" because of the phoneme's theoretical value.
I hope this helps.