"hit rock bottom" is the common usage (not: "hit the bottom").
"rock bottom" means the person is having a hard time, but it also means that it is the *worst* point for that person. If someone has hit "rock bottom" it means it can get no worse for that person.
This is a commonly understood term, used in spoken and casual written English. It is not old English, and it is not used in formal writing.
@AnthonyNewJersey's examples are good!