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Past Perfect in sentences before past simple PP in all sentences because he "LEAPT OUT" at the end? At the age of three Comrade Ogilvy had refused all toys except a drum, a sub-machine gun, and a model helicopter. At six — a year early, by a special relaxation of the rules — he had joined the Spies, at nine he had been a troop leader. At eleven he had denounced his uncle to the Thought Police after overhearing a conversation which appeared to him to have criminal tendencies. At seventeen he had been a district organizer of the Junior Anti-Sex League. At nineteen he had designed a hand-grenade which had been adopted by the Ministry of Peace and which, at its first trial, had killed thirty-one Eurasian prisoners in one burst. At twenty-three he had perished in action. Pursued by enemy jet planes while flying over the Indian Ocean with important despatches, he had weighted his body with his machine gun and LEAPT OUT of the helicopter into deep water.
Aug 2, 2014 6:42 AM
Answers · 11
No. The past perfect is used when, within a sentence (not a paragraph), an action is being described that took place before the main verb (which is in the simple past tense). Examples: I had never heard of Baikal Lake before my fiance traveled there in 1994. I had never studied Spanish before I moved to central Washington last year. I had finished cleaning the house before my wife arrived home from her trip.
August 2, 2014
No; "leapt out" is actually part of the past perfect grammar: "he had... leapt out of the helicopter". The whole paragraph is a (fake) history in the context of the main action: Winston dictating this fabricated history. So, past perfect applies to the whole paragraph.
August 2, 2014
LEAPT Past tense of LEAP. LEAP TO JUMP FROM ONE POINT TO ANOTHER. LEAPED LEAPS LEAPER Some one who leaps. Does not always mean the physical act of leaping. e.g. She leaped at the opportunity. an idea that immediately leaped to mind
August 2, 2014
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