Firstly, note that your question should read '.... someone who LIVES in a city'. 'Someone' is a singular noun, so its verbs needs a third-person 's'.
All of those terms are possible, I think, apart from 'urban dweller', which is a little odd. To understand why, it helps to realise that, grammatically, your list includes are two different types of noun phrases. 'City dweller' and 'city resident' are compound nouns, made up of two nouns put together. The others are made up of an adjective and a noun. The word 'dweller' means 'someone who lives in a xx'. A 'city dweller' is person who lives in a city. So an 'urban dweller' is someone who lives in a ......? This doesn't work, because 'urban' is an adjective.
'City dweller' and 'urban resident' are the terms which are the most usual.