Quite often, the word attempt is used to talk about trying to attain a specific goal, whereas effort is a more general term to describe work, both physical and mental.
It will be his last attempt to climb the mountain.
If this attempt fails, she will not try again.
I attempted to run 10 kilometres but I could not do it.
I want to run 10 kilometres but I will only succeed if I make the effort to train.
I am trying to learn a language but it involves a lot of effort.
It involved a lot of time and effort to achieve it.