In addition to "not" being able to make a verb negative, it can also make an adjective negative.
"I only wear not yellow clothes."
It can also negate an adverb.
"I not infrequently go to the store."
It can also apply to pronouns, like as follows.
"Who wants this?" "Not me."
It can apply to nouns or pronouns as well to contradict something.
"The boy, not my brother, ate the cake."
"Not just anybody would do that."
It can also be used in exclamation if something bad is happening to something.
"Not the car!" (E.g. it's burning.)
Unlike "not", the uses of "no" are much more limited. It indicates a lack of something or is an answer to a question.
"Do you have that?" "No."
"I have no food."
It also is used before a noun to mean "not any".
"No amount of kindness will solve this."
I think this is all, but if anyone has anything to add, feel free - "not" has a lot of uses.