Informally, particularly if you take the class in high school, we call it 'driver's ed.', short for 'driver's education'. As Michael says, the practical portion is called 'behind-the-wheel training'. At my public high school we had a half-semester of learning the rules of the road, followed by practical training on simulators, but I don't recall long the simulator training was. You could also sign up for behind-the-wheel training where you went out on the road with an instructor. I don't remember how long that was, just that I did it during the summer.