Most of these don't exist in Arabic, we have no "past simple" and "past perfect", they're both just "past" tense, same with present, there's no "present simple" and "present continuous", there's only "present", so for example "آدم يأكل" expresses both English equivalents "Adam eats / Adam is eating", same for the past tense, "أكل آدم" is "Adam ate / Adam has eaten / ..." and so on.
In the case of the "past continuous", we express it in Arabic using a certain group of verbs called "الأفعال الناقصة" , for example the most famous verb among this group is "كان" "was":
آدم يأكل = Adam eats / is eating.
كان آدم يأكل / آدم كان يأكل = Adam was eating
Notice that it's not a "tense", but another verb (in the past tense) that was added to the complete sentence.
So, just remember that Arabic verbs have only three cases (tenses) : Past, Present, and Imperative, the rest of the tenses as the ones you mentioned in English either do not exist (they're not differentiated in Arabic) or could be expressed through the choice of verbs and how the sentence is formed.