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Martin
How to use 이/가 and 은/는 with these location phrases? Today, I studied some phrases about location. For example, "식당이 어이 있어요?" "도서관 뒤에 있어요." But I am confused with the particles in the sentences. How to use 이/가 and 은/는 with these location phrases? because there are some examples: "소피아가 책방에 있어요." "가방은 의자 옆에 있어요." So when should I use 이/가 or 은/는 after the subject?
Jan 23, 2016 10:09 AM
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Answers · 7
"이/가 and 은/는" How to use these particles is a quite involved subject and you can't understand all of it just by reading a few paragraphs. It is deeply integrated with the rest of the language. You can fully master it only when you get to a fairly advanced level of comprehension. Still, here's a simple introduction that might help. The basic rule is that 은/는 is generally used to talk about a *main*, important *topic*, relating new, *open* information. 이/가 on the other hand is more for supplying a *specific*, *closed* fact, in a *subordinate* role. This "main" and "center stage" versus "subordinate" and "support function" is not without exceptions and sometimes the distinction is blurred, but it is generally the most important criterion. Examples are best for understanding this: - 나는 이 학교를 다녔다: You want to talk about some new fact about 나, the main topic, so 는. - 이것은 내가 다닌 학교다: The topic/subject is 이것(so 은); "내가" is in a sub-clause modifying 학교 in a supporting role, so it takes 가. "나는 다닌 학교" doesn't make sense. AA: 누가 숙제를 다 했어요? Speaker wants to know a specific closed fact- WHO did it. He is not intending to discuss new things about that person, so the subordinate and closed 가. BB: 영수가 댜 했어요: Same. A specific single fact is given as an answer to a question asking for it. AA: 철수는 아직 못했나요? Here the speaker is drawing attention to a new person, so that person becomes the topic and takes the center stage, so 는. For this reason, in subordinates phrases, it is typically 이/가: 내가 너를 좋아하는 이유, 내가 읽던 책, 정보가 중요한 시대, etc. On the other hand, when you talk about something new or important, it is usually with 은/는: 나는 네가 좋아, 난 회사 그만 두기로 했어, 너는 성격이 참 좋다, 그 애는 죽었어. Knowing this basic principle is a good start for beginners.
January 23, 2016
Use 이/가 as a suffix at the end of the subject and 은/는 after the object... Example... I ate cake. <--I is the subject, cake is the object. The sentence is about "I" so I is the subject. The cake is being acted upon by the subject "I" so "cake is the object" usually in Korean they would say "ate cake" because the I is not needed. With Korean sentence structure you would say, "cake ate" because verbs and adjectives are on the end of the sentence in Korean.:) I usually don't see 가/이 very much anyways. Usually 는/은 is used. Then 를/을 is used in writing but not always in speaking. Now, remember 가/이 intensifies the subject... So if you put those on the end of the subject... The subject REALLY is the purpose of the sentence. Koreans will look at the subject more than the other things... So if you said "I went shopping" shopping with the subject market will make them think about THE SHOPPING because it's about SHOPPING not "I" I hope this made sense lol
January 23, 2016
1.이/가 Excerpts from wikipedia.org https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_grammar "Korean postpositions are also known as case markers. Examples include 는 (neun, topic marker) and 를 (reul, object marker). Postpositions come after substantives and are used to indicate the role (subject, object, complement, or topic) of a noun in a sentence or clause."Both nouns and pronouns take case clitics. Pronouns are somewhat irregular. As with many clitics and suffixes in Korean, for many case clitics different forms are used with nouns ending in consonants and nouns ending in vowels. The most extreme example of this is in the nominative (subject), where the historical clitic i '이' is now restricted to appearing after consonants, and a completely unrelated (suppletive) form -ka'가' (pronounced -ga) appears after vowels. Case : After V After C Nominative : -가 - 이 Example : 소피아'가' (아=vowel) 식당'이'(in 당, ㄷ=onset ㅏ=peak ㅇ=coda) 2.은/는 Informational clitics 은/는 Type : After V After C Topic : -는 -은
January 23, 2016
Refer to http://www.italki.com/question/316139
January 23, 2016
Martin
Language Skills
Chinese (Mandarin), Chinese (Cantonese), English, Korean
Learning Language
Korean