I'm going to answer these, but I want to let you know that at least in American English you will not hear someone talk like this. Under each, I rewrote the sentence to reflect what you are more likely to hear.
This meat is beautifully tender - what recipe did you use?
- Wow, this meat is so tender - is this a new recipe?
2. A, C, or D. D is technically correct, but you'll hear the others.
Unfortunately, our hotel turned out to be a substantial distance from the beach.
- Unfortunately, our hotel turned out to be a really long distance from the beach.
I had no idea that you were planning to come - you might have warned me.
- I had no idea you were coming - you should've warned me.
Soldiers have been sent in to try to restore order in the area.
(You'll hear this one, but only on the news.)
It's a great place to live apart from the increasing volume of traffic that passes under my window every day.
- It's a great place to live, except for all of the traffic outside.
6. A or D, but D matches the type of language used and is slightly more likely to be correct.
The professor's unusual theories are sure to come under criticism from many of his rivals.
- The professor's odd theories are sure to draw criticism from his rivals.
Local residents harshly objected to the plans to build a supermarket where there is currently a beautiful park.
- Local residents objected harshly to plans to replace a park with a supermarket.
- Local residents objected harshly to plans to build a supermarket as it would replace a beautiful park.
(Again, you'll only hear this kind of language in the news)