1) Do you have a ball ?
This is correct and common, and you can use it in any situation.
2) Have you got a ball ?
This is correct and common, and you can use it in informal and neutral situations. You probably wouldn't use it in very formal contexts, though.
3) Have you a ball?
This is grammatically correct, but it is very old-fashioned and unnatural-sounding. You might hear it in a historical drama set a few hundred years ago, but otherwise you wouldn't normally hear anyone say this nowadays.