As you found, 변호사 is the most common term for attorney or lawyer.
There are other non-specific terms but they are not as widely used as "lawyer" in English.
For example, there is 법조인(law practitioner), 법률가(jurist, law professional), etc.
But these are vague and abstract terms not used much in daily life.
법무사 (judiciary scrivener) is the name of the profession performing clerical work in legal proceedings.
There are also common legal profession names like 검사 (government attorney, prosecutor) and 판사 (judge in court).