1 - It only requires one bad thing to ruin the rest of the good things. It is commonly used for people who are troublemakers and influence other people who are normally well-behaved. You may refer to a troublemaker as a "bad egg", which references this idiom.
2 - It is usually stupid or superficial people (empty vessels) who have nothing of value to say, but still say everything that comes to their mind.
3 - This means basically the same thing as #2. A "narrow mind" is a person who is not open to new ideas, a "broad tongue" means that they always express their own ideas.
4 - Being successful requires you to make efforts which will sometimes end in failure. But if you don't make any efforts, you will not be successful.
5 - This means that you should be content with what you have and not constantly seeking to get more. If you always want more, you will never be happy.