Phrasal verbs are a popular way of teaching one aspect of English verbs that are coupled with particles (also called adverbial prepositions).
There is a less popular method, which tries to teach the meanings of the particles and how they influence a verb. For some people that works better.
I am not convinced that "phrasal verbs" really exist except as a teaching method for explaining English grammar.
Very few English natives know that they exist, unless they are teaching others learning English as adults. We just learned them by hearing others speak. Nobody teaches phrasal verbs to children.