I agree with Peachey - and in fact his advice doesn't just apply to phrasal verbs, it applies to all words. Next time, try to compare sentences instead of comparing words, and you will get clearer answers.
If I asked you, "What's the difference between a monkey, a watermelon and an iPhone?", how would you reply? It's an impossible question, because the differences are so varied you don't know where to begin! The same applies to your question: "take" is such a hugely varied and context-dependent word that nobody can give an adequate answer to your question.
Aside from the link Peachey provided, you can try www.linguee.com and www.glosbe.com to find more example sentences.