The word alcohol most often means ethanol, CH3CH2OH, a drug that makes you feel good. Beer is about 5% alcohol, wine is about 10% alcohol; brandy, whiskey, gin and vodka are about 50% alcohol.
Alcohol can also mean a family of related chemical substances, "the alcohols."
Alcohol can also be used broadly to mean "everything with alcohol in it."
These sentences all mean the same thing:
"I don't drink alcohol."
"I don't drink anything alcoholic."
"I'm a teetotaler." (Rare but you will read it in books).
"I don't drink." (Common at the actual moment when someone offers you something alcoholic).
Wine is grape juice that's been allowed to sit, unrefrigerated. When juices with sugar at left to sit, yeast gets into it. Yeast converts sugar to alcohol. The process is called fermentation.
Fermented grape juice is wine. Fermented apple juice is cider. Fermented barley is beer. Fermented rice is sake.
Fermentation creates beverages with 5-10% alcohol. Then the process stops because the alcohol kills the yeast. The beverage can be distilled--heated, evaporated, condensed. This concentrates the alcohol. Wine becomes brandy. Fermented and distilled grain mash becomes whiskey. Fermented and distilled potatoes become vodka.