I don't know what you mean by general or gernal terms because I'm a native speaker and, like every other native speaker, just learned by hearing and speaking. Hence, some things sound right and some not.
First, in the first 8 sentences leave out the "s's" and the "the's". They don't make any sense and no one talks like that. Just as an example never say "fishes." Nobody says that. The only time I've ever heard "fishes " is in the sentence "all the fishes in the sea" and that sounds like something out of the King James Bible from 1611. And you don't need it anyway. "All the fish in the sea is just as good, in fact better. The plural of fish IS fish.
Plus the phrase with alcohol is wrong. Wine and beer contain alcohol but they are not alcohol. Plus there are various kinds of alcohol and all are toxic. The only one that you can consume is ethanol, and that's the one in wine and beer. The phrase is "alcoholic beverages."
Plus, it is not incorrect to say "roses are a much-loved flower." A lot of native speakers say that. Also, be careful in using "bread" in a plural like "breads." Although it might not technically be an incorrect plural, it's almost never seen. Bread alone is a plural form.
If you went into a store and said "I'd like to buy some fishes, breads, etc" you'd either get a funny look with the clerk immediately knowing you were a tourist, or they'd hit the floor laughing.
You wrote "When I say general terms, I mean... For example, we can say "Potatoes are an important crop",but we can't say "Roses are a much loved flower" ( as I said WRONG", because "crop" is a general term whereas "flower" is not.(Total nonsense. Don't know who taught this to you but it's false.)
I was told that "fishes" and the plural form of fish names are used in scientific context, so I wonder if sentence like "Salmon, tuna and herring are important fishes" are correct.(like I said, drop the "es" on fish. It's wrong.)