In the United States, at least, "anniversary" is an ordinary word that's used all the time. It's used in two slightly different ways. By far the most common meaning is to mean "wedding anniversary." If we did not know "The Anniversary Song" ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-y1O_r55Mw
), we would, correctly, assume it was about a wedding anniversary. Similarly, people refer to our "our anniversary" or "an anniversary present."
However, it is used for other events, but if it is not a wedding anniversary we use the full phrase "X anniversary" or "anniversary of X."
One of the companies I worked at had monthly company meetings. At the end of each meeting they would always announce "and this is so-and-so's tenth anniversary with our company," or "this is so-and-so's fifteenth work anniversary," and everyone would applaud.
It is used for historic events; December 7th, 2016 was the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (which brought the U.S. into World War II).
An "anniversary" can be any number of years. We might tell our friends that we celebrated "our forty-sixth anniversary," even though there's nothing special about forty-six.
In the United States "jubilee," to mean anniversary, is old-fashioned and dying out. It is only used in connection with events, usually the foundation of an institution, and I've only heard it used for two specific anniversaries: the "golden jubilee" is the fiftieth anniversary, and the "diamond jubilee" is the sixtieth.
It also can be used just generally to mean an enthusiastic celebration. The Boy Scouts hold "camp-o-rees" which are big, jubilant, group camping event.
The word "jubilee" has faintly religious overtones, because of an old Hebrew custom mentioned in the Bible, and some "Negro spiritual" songs refer to the "Day of Jubilee" as a way of talking about the hoped-for day of release from slavery.