'Since' can sometimes carry the meaning 'because', as well as sometimes being strictly time-based.
Sentence #6 of yours is the best example of this - both clauses are in the same time period and it's interpreted that your health is bad because you are smoking.
However, intentional or not, some of your other sentences carry this meaning. I would interpret your sentences as follows:
1. I haven't heard from her since she has lived in London.
-- Because she lived in London, I haven't heard from her. (? Maybe you got in a fight because you found out she once lived in London? The sentence makes little sense.)
2. I haven't heard from her since she lived in London.
-- She used to live in London, and now no longer lives in London. I talked to her while she was in London, or before that point, but not after.
3. I have been in poor health since I have smoked cigarettes.
-- It is the case that I have been unhealthy, and this was because I smoked cigarettes. (It is unclear if you are still unhealthy, only that you once were).
4. I haven't heard from her since she was living in London.
-- She was in London, and it is possible that I talked to her then, but now I don't.
5. I haven't heard from her since she has been living in London.
-- You haven't heard from her because she is currently living in London.
6. I have been in poor health since I have been smoking cigarettes.
If you want to force 'since' to refer to time and not cause, we can instead say 'ever since'. In some of these examples this breaks the sentence, but in some it makes it a lot clearer.
"I have been unhealthy ever since I started smoking" -- I started smoking, and from that time onwards, I have been unhealthy.
"I have not heard from her ever since she lived in London" -- she lived in London, and then I stopped hearing from her.