Numbers 1 and 4 are the only correct options that a native speaker would use. But still, I would not phrase it that way. These choices use too many words to express a simple thought, in my opinion.
" "He comes from a large family, thirteen." This sounds natural to a native speaker. I used a comma to express a pause. I suppose that a full stop or a semi-colon could work too.
Another option is "He comes from a large family of thirteen" This one sounds the most natural.