Tiffany lam
I just wanna know the by meaning same? The price of oil fell by a further $2 a barrel. I was overcharged by £3. they are expected to increase by 10% this year in China.
Nov 15, 2017 2:47 AM
Answers · 3
Yes, 'by' in these examples refers to the amount of the change in examples 1 and 3, and the amount the person was overcharged BY in example 2. The price of oil fell by a further $2 a barrel: 1) Let's say the price of oil, which was falling over some period of time, was $10 a barrel at some specific point in time. At a later point in time, after it fell BY $2, and therefore the new price would be $8 a barrel. I was overcharged by £3 2) In the second example, where overcharged means the person paid too much, the amount they paid was £3 more than the normal price. Let's say you bought lunch at a restaurant and the normal price was £10, but for some reason the waiter charged you £13, we can say you were overcharged BY £3. They are expected to increase by 10% this year in China 3) Although the third example uses a percentage, the idea is the same. Let's say the price of a what's-it in China is 100 RMB, but the price is expected to increase BY 10%. In this case the future price of a what's-it is expected to be 110 RMB, as 10 is 10% of 100, and the number BY which the price increased. Compare these examples if we change the preposition from BY to TO in examples 1 and 3. In this case, the number after to is the value AFTER the increase or decrease, not the number OF the increase or decrease. 1)Oil was $10 a a barrel, and then it decreased so the price was $2 per barrel. In this case we say the price dropped TO $2 per barrel. Another way to say this would be: Oil dropped BY 8 dollars per barrel, meaning the difference between the starting price ($10) and the final price ($2) is $8. 2) In example 3, let's say banks pay 5% interest, and for some reason this changes, and banks will start paying 10% interest in the future. Here we say the interest will increase TO 10% Another way of saying this would be interest will increase BY 5 percentage points (but not 5%, which would only be an increase TO 5.25%, because 5% of 5% is 0.25%) Hope that helps!
November 15, 2017
Hi Nelson, see below:
November 15, 2017
Still haven’t found your answers?
Write down your questions and let the native speakers help you!
Tiffany lam
Language Skills
Chinese (Mandarin), English, German, Japanese
Learning Language
English, German, Japanese