Putain is very often used by french people and in all kind of contexts!
I mean, litterally a "putain" is a prostitute, but now we use this word for anything that goes wrong... I'm not sure I'm clear, here are some examples:
"Putain! he's late, where is he?"
"Où sont ces putains de clés?!" = where are these fucking keys!?
I think you can maybe replace fuck/fuckin by putain very often...
Or "Putain, ça me saoule!" = Fuck, it sucks!
Hope it will help (I need slang too, but in english :))