Ciao Wilson, here you go:
1) traguardo: this can mean two different things - in the most immediate sense, it's the finish line of a race (most commonly you'll hear the expression "tagliare il traguardo", meaning to reach/go past the finish line), but more metaphorically it can also mean a goal or objective achieved.
2) sbocchi professionali: "career prospects" ("sbocco" by itself means an outlet or a way out).
3) parola sdrucciola: in Italian most words have the stress on the second to last syllable; however, sometimes the stress falls on the third to last, and in that case the word is defined "sdrucciola"; an example can be "tavolo", because the stress falls on the a.
4) parola tronca: similarly, "parola tronca" is a word where the stress falls on the last syllable - in this case, the stress is also visually marked with an accent, for example in the word "libertà".
Hope this helps!