in which case do we use gerund, only when two actions match? in which case do we use gerund, only when two actions match? en que caso se utiliza el gerundio ruso, solo cuando coinciden dos acciones? example : он бегал на парк ,посмотреля деревий они видел телевизор, читая в тексте в филме when you deny an action, do you use gerund? en la negacion de una accion se utiliza el gerundio ? он не читал ,он говарил gerund ending changes to -я or also to -а? el gerundio cambia la terminacion a -я o tambien a -а?
Aug 20, 2018 9:40 PM
Answers · 8
Past forms are formed from Perfective and -в, -вши (and sometimes -а, -я) ending: собрать - собрав задyматься - задyмавшись зайти - зайдя положить - положа, положив Present forms are Imprerfective and -ая, -яя, -а, and -я ending: собирать - собирая объяснять - объясняя писать - пиша идти - идя There are also more archaic -ючи endings (we don't use them often): играя, играючи "играючи" is used idiomatically to mean "with ease". -ая and -яя ending from -ать -ять verbs. -я endings for -ить -еть verbs and some -ать verbs. -а instead of -я after the consonants that are always hard. We Never wirte -жя or -шя. Because these consonants are ALWAYS hard, we always write жа and ша.
August 21, 2018
Russian деепричастия are very disordered:) It won't be easy for a learner. Sometimes there are even parallel forms! поев - поевши (colloquial) положив - положа (idiomatic, expressive: "положа рyкy нА сердце" with stressed на). But -в is the most common ending for Past. Moreover, not from every verb such a form can be formed! Some of them sound Funny for us - we don't know why:) And they aren't used often. e.g. идя is somewhat funny. A bit. We use it but not too often, with are not entirely comfortable. We may use "на ходy" or "по дороге" instead. Some are Very funny, and used very rarely:-) And in Serious books authors trying to sound serious would avoid any funny form:) Also the difference with Spanish is tha some usages (that came from european books) are "bookish".
August 21, 2018
By "gerund" you meant words like "читая"? It is Very similar to Spanish gerundio!!! But NOT to English gerund. So for Russians who don't know Spanish word "gerund" sounds a bit confusing. We call it "деепричастие". It has Past and Present forms: Past for situations like this: "El agricultor, habiendo acumulado todos los rastrojos que había en el campo, encendió una hoguera para deshacerse de ellos." "Cобрав все сорняки, какие были на поле, фермер развел костёр, чтобы от них избавиться". Here we use "собрав" for "habiendo acumulado". It is used simlarly to Spanish and can be used with negation: Я делаю это не задyмываясь - I do that without thinking.
August 21, 2018
1. Participle 1 - он бегал в парке и смотрел на деревья (to independent actions you don't need the participle. 2. Он смотрел фильм читая субтитры reading subtitles and watching a film are connected action, the second part explains how the person watched the film. Negative sentences : она просмотрела книгу не читая. again how did she skim the book? Without reading it.
August 20, 2018
Still haven’t found your answers?
Write down your questions and let the native speakers help you!