Hi, Madam S!
While the two can sometimes both be used, generally "through" is for situations and settings that are more linear (point A to point B) and "throughout" is for those that are more all-encompassing. Here are two examples:
"I worked through the night to complete the assignment."
"Smiling is a universal sign of happiness throughout the world."
In the first sentence, I completed a task by starting it at a certain time and finishing it at a certain time. That's going from one end to the other. In the second sentence, I'm describing a situation that encompasses an entire planet, which is not linear but across an entire area and/or volume.
I hope this helps somewhat clarify the differences. Please let me know if my answer is confusing.