to take a chance: to do something that could have either good or bad results She's trying to find a publisher who will take a chance on her book. It might not work, but it's a chance we'll have to take.
to have a chance: to have an opportunity.
-- Why didn't you speak to Jan about the party tomorrow night?
-- She wasn't at work today, so I didn't have a chance to speak to her.
to try a chance - I have never heard, but you can use "to try your luck"
I hope I helped. If there is anything else you do not understand, feel free to ask me.