In North American universities, students spend about 1000 hours of class and study over two years to become moderately functional in a new language (read a newspaper, talk to people). In general, they are at a B2 level but not fluent.
Private lessons can be very effective. Immersion programs can be very effective. In these situations, students get significant interactions and can become moderately fluent within their existing vocabulary (usually B1 or B2).