짓다 = 1. 제료를 들여 밥, 옷, 집 따위를 만들다. ( make rice(cook), clothing and home etc. by using materials)
2. 여러 가지 재료를 섞어 약을 만들다. ( make a medicine by blending various materials)
3. 시, 소설, 편지, 노래 가사 따위와 같은 글을 쓰다. ( write a kind of poet, novel. letter and lyrics etc.)
짓다 is used for various expressions with many meanings. this word is used among chat, daily speaking and sometimes in casual articles.
건조하다 -> 건물이나 배 따위를 설계하여 만들다. (design and build like that building or ship)
건조하다 has another meaning - Dry. and it usually used for this meaning.
Usually you could see this word ,as building something, in thesis or article.
건축하다 can translate "build".
건축하다 sounds little more stiff than 짓다. When you write or read some letters, it is most common word.