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로 인하다 and 에 의하다 What do the grammars 로 인하다 and 에 의하다 mean?
Oct 3, 2018 7:19 AM
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-(으로) 인하다 refers to a direct reason or cause of something (it stresses cause and effect), while -에 의하다 indicates some mechanism, source, or procedure that brings about something (not as categorical as 인하다). There is some overlap in meaning between the two, but -에 의하다 also has the sense of -에 따르다, which means "according to" or "going by (a source of information)" (따르다 can also mean "to follow" in a different usage). -에 의하다 sort of sits between -(으)로 인하다 and -에 따르다. All three are typically used in an attributive adjective form (인한, 의한, 따른) or as an adverb (인해(서), 의해(서), 따라(서), 의하면, 따르면). - 정부 발표에 의하면/따르면 ... = According to the government announcement (information source). - 그는 사고 후유증으로 인해 죽었다 = He died from complications caused by an accident (direct cause). - 식물은 삼투 작용에 의해 [or 삼투 작용으로] 물을 발아들인다 = Plants draw in water through osmosis (mechanism).
October 3, 2018
Thank you!
October 3, 2018
Here is the details for you. :) I hope it could help your study. https://www.howtostudykorean.com/upper-intermediate-korean-grammar/unit-4-lessons-76-83/lesson-78/
October 3, 2018
it is complicated, but I think in general, ~에 의하다(~에 의해) stands for according to sth or somebody. ~로 인하다(could be replaced ~(으)로 인해) stands for due to sth or somebody. However, you can’t replace ~에 의하다 with ~(으)로 인하다 when ~(으)면 is attached to create the meaning “according to.” For example, the following wouldn’t be used in Korean: 신문으로 인하면 심장병 사망률은 아주 높아요(X) 신문에 의하면 심장병 사망률은 아주 높아요(O) To be simple, ~에 의하다 = according to ~로 인하다(인해) = due to
October 3, 2018
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