It means accidently meeting something(or someone).
So you can use it like these;
그가 곰과 *조우했던* 이야기를 했을 때 나는 정말 깜짝 놀랐다.
I was really surprised when he told me about the moment he *accidently met* a bear.
Im not good at english, but i want to help you to learn Korean. Im open to your questions.